Undergraduate and graduate programmes offered by the University iuav of Venice:

 

 

 

 

Abandoned villages: compared case studies

 

UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia

Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai

8th international architecture workshop

 

16 March > 25 May 2021: International Workshop

 

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promoted by

international network of schools of architecture Designing Heritage Tourism Landscapes

 

organized by

UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia – CAUP Tongji University Shanghai

 

project coordinators

Mauro Marzo, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Margherita Emma Turvani, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Jianlong Zhang, Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning

 

participating schools

UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno – UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II – UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe – UniversitÓ degli Studi di Catania, Struttura didattica Speciale di Architettura, Sede di Siracusa – Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai – UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia (network leader)

 

professors

Ottavio Amaro, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe – Viola Bertini, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Sara Cipolletti,á UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno – Luigi Coccia, UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno – Angela D’Agostino, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II – Marco Ferrari, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Fabrizio Foti, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Catania, Struttura didattica Speciale di Architettura, Sede di Siracusa –á Xu Gan, Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai Mauro Marzo, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Bruno Messina, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Catania, Struttura didattica Speciale di Architettura, Sede di Siracusa – Ludovico Romagni, UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno – Paola Scala, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II – Francesca Schepis, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe – Emanuela Sorbo, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Marina Tornatora, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe – Margherita Emma Turvani, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Jianlong Zhang, Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai – Yu Xingze, Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai Yu Yong, Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai

 

general organization

Viola Bertini, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto (coordination) – Susanna Campeotto, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Mattia Cocozza, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto

 

tutors

Blagoja Bajkovski, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe – Susanna Campeotto, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Mattia Cocozza, UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia, Dipartimento di Culture del progetto – Alessia Guaiani, UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno – Pasquale Iaconatonio, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe – Carmelo Ignaccolo, MIT, Department of Urban Studies and Planning – Simone Porfiri, UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno – Giovangiuseppe Vannelli, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II – Piero Zizzania, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

 

workshop introduction

Today we are witnessing a constant exodus of the world population towards metropolitan areas, in the face of which entire territories are subject to an inexorable process of abandonment and marginalization.

The international workshop Abandoned villages, compared case studies, promoted by the Designing Heritage Tourism Landscapes network in collaboration with Tongji University - College of architecture and urban planning of Shanghai, propose to divert the gaze from

large metropolis to small villages, where, even in the more ancient times, communities expressed themselves in a different relationship between urban dimension and territory.

These are places more or less distant from large urban areas and often holders of a priceless cultural heritage, whose abandon implies not only economic and socio-cultural transformations, but also physical and spatial ones.

What should we do of the signs of the past and of what remains? What should stay? What are the common features to abandoned or depopulated villages, in Italy and in China? What, on the other hand, are the prerogatives of such different realities?

The workshop will be an opportunity to investigate reasons, peculiarities and forms of the ongoing process of depopulation, while shedding light on possible strategies of intervention at the scale of the building, the settlement and the territory, capable of giving new vitality to the different areas that we intend to study.

Assuming an analytical and meta-project perspective, a comparative Italy-China critical reading is proposed, aimed at intercepting resources, opportunities and specificities of this immense cultural heritage to be regained.

 

workshop program

The workshop will take place online from March 16 to May 25, with the participation of students from UniversitÓ di Camerino, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Catania, Tongji University of Shanghai and UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia.

The activities will be divided into a part of seminar lessons and a part of exercises concerning the Italy-China comparative analysis of the villages chosen as case studies. For each of them, the different scales, places and phases of abandonment will be analysed. It will be important to understand how different times, causes and places played a fundamental role in the abandonment process. Subsequently, possible architectural strategies aimed at triggering processes of urban and territorial reactivation, transformation and regeneration can be envisaged.

For the Chinese part, the workshop program is placed in reference to the guidelines for the protection and utilization of Chinese traditional villages and rural buildings of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, while the Italian case studies are contextualized within the vast debate on the future of the country's internal territories.

 

workshop organization

The seminar lessons, held by professors from Tongji University and from the DHTL network Universities, will aim at offering the students the fundamental tools and interpretative keys to deal with the workshop themes. Therefore, the lectures will constitute a theoretical support strongly oriented to the operational approach, in order to guide the students' work in the critical- analytical reading of the case studies.

 

Each working team will be made up of students from UniversitÓ di Camerino, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Catania, Tongji University and UniversitÓ Iuav di Venezia. For each group of students two parallel and interconnected investigations are proposed: one in China and one in Italy. Both the analysis, conducted using the same tools and according to the same structure, will be addressed to explore times, places and causes of the abandonment, as well as the typo-morphological structure of the villages and the characteristics of the landscapes they are located in. The comparison between the two case studies, the Chinese and the Italian one, will represent a central moment of the work. In a second phase, through meta-project explorations, the case studies will be interpreted as places that can suggest new forms of living and re-inhabiting places.

 

Each group of students will be asked to work online independently on the two assigned case studies during the workshop period. Every week, according to a scheduled calendar in China and Italy, the students will discuss the advancement of the work with the professors and tutors participating in the workshop. These regular activities will be accompanied by moments of collective discussion between professors, tutors and groups of students operating on different case studies. A final discussion will be the place for an ultimate comparison on the different achieved results.

 

the workshop themes

The themes that will be addressed while doing the comparative analysis, aim at a transversal and progressive deepening of the many aspects that feature the villages and their territories.

Times and causes of abandonment

-         The origins of the phenomenon of abandonment

-         The reasons of the phenomenon of abandonment

-         The different phases of abandonment

-         Differences/similarities between Chinese case studies and Italian ones

Landscape’s protection and enhancement:

-         Environment texture analysis and restoration strategies

-         Agricultural landscape analysis and restoration strategies

-         Integrated urban-rural community analysis

Typological research:

-         Traditional public space system

-         Traditional housing prototype

 

the sites

 

China

 

Ludiao Wan Village

case study curated by professor Jianlong Zhang, Tongji University, College of architecture and urban planning, Shanghai

 

Ludiao Wan Village is located in Xinbang town, Songjiang district, Shanghai. Ludiao Wan Village is 5 kilometers from the Xinbang town center, 20 kilometers from Songjiang city center, 65 kilometers from Shanghai city center, mainly reachable through a township road connection from Xinbang town center and through the highway connection from Songjiang city center and Shanghai city center.

The historical community was founded 400 years ago, at the age of the Ming dynasty. The relocation policy started in recent years, in the framework of the acceleration of the urbanization process in Xingbang town and due to the construction of a new village community in the central town area of Xinbang town center. Nowadays, many villagers have moved to Xinbang town centre, and most of the residential houses are vacant in historical communities. Although the per capita cultivated land has been relieved, the stable social organization structure of Ludiao Wan village has been seriously damaged, the public life of the village is no longer active, and the traditional public space is increasingly negative.

á

Italy

 

Arquata del Tronto and Trisungo – Marche Appennines

case study curated by professors Sara Cipolletti, Luigi Coccia, Ludovico Romagni, UniversitÓ di Camerino, Scuola di Ateneo di Architettura e Design “Eduardo Vittoria” Ascoli Piceno

 

The seismic events of 2016 affected a territory of high environmental quality in which anthropization is expressed by small ancient settlements, located in strategic positions. The earthquake deleted entire villages, rooted to the ground, apparently solid and persistent, and it dramatically accentuated the depopulation trend. Considering this constellation of fields of ruins within a wooded territory, the reflection on post-earthquake reconstruction becomes complex, since it presupposes innovative programs for the repopulation of inland areas. The fact-finding survey aims to highlight the peculiarities of these places by focusing attention on two sites of the Marche Apennines: Arquata del Tronto and Trisungo. 

The design vision will focus on two distinct spatial concepts: on one hand, the idea of closeness and introverted space applicable to the Trisungo case study, located in the river’s valley; on the other hand, the idea of extroverted space suitable to the case study of Arquata del Tronto, which dominates the landscape from a limestone spur.

 

Bova and the Grecanica area of Calabria

case study curated by professor Marina Tornatora, UniversitÓ degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento dArTe

 

Grecanica (greek) area, belonging to the Ionia coast of Calabria Region hosts a series of abandoned or semi-abandoned villages such as Bova, Pentedattilo, Roghudi, Bagaladi, and Palizzi where the elder population still talks a Greek dialect. All these villages have a peculiar landscape, geography, and historical identity which attract a growing tourist interest. The villages are located on the hill and mountain system of Calabria, on the slopes of the Aspromonte, about 300 over the sea level, outstretched towards the sea,

which is visible from every angle, and their landscape shows numerous river basins. Water is the fundamental element of the landscape and a resource for the local economy and it is also a source of risk because the geological and orographic characters of the area.

Bova throughout history has been economically and culturally the most consistent village of the Grecanica; after a long period of crisis, it is now experiencing a positive trend in population and activities. Bova is one of the eleven centers of the Ionian belt of the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria (about 54.3436 inhabitants), participating in the National Strategy for Inland Areas (SNAI). Today, Bova is an active communitive of 400

inhabitants who are working on a regeneration path, based on tourists’ demand, to reverse the trend of abandonment, dating back to the fifties. Major changes are taking place, somehow changing old patterns of life and of urban places, and yet urban beauty remains unchanged, offering more acceptable living conditions if compared with those of conurbations of the metropolitan realities. Bova, therefore, is assumed as an experimental laboratory, characterized by urban quality, architecture, sociality and identity, which attempts to establish new parameters of value and reference models, thanks to a design action emphasizing human interactions, environmental issues, Heritage, and technological innovation.

 

Craco in the landscapes of “Montagna Materana”

case study curated by professor Angela D’Agostino, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

 

The inner area, named “Montagna Materana”, featured by woodland, agricultural and gully landscapes, is one of the pilot areas of the National Strategy for Inner Areas.

Craco, one of the eight municipalities at risk of abandonment, is a "ghost village" that stands in the gully landscape between the Lucanian Apennines and the Ionian Sea. The depopulation process, which began following a landslide in the 1960s, ended with the 1980 earthquake when the inhabitants were moved to the hamlet of Craco Peschiera. After its abandonment, a series of initiatives enabled the survival of the village where, despite only a few buildings retaining the roofs, the 12th century urban structure is still perfectly legible.

Craco is taken as a starting point to re-read the relationships between villages and landscapes, between resources and communities and identify possibilities for the future for one of the innermost areas of Italy.

 

Palazzolo Acreide – Sicily

case study curated by professor Bruno Messina, UniversitÓ degli Studi di Catania, Struttura didattica Speciale di Architettura, Sede di Siracusa

 

Palazzolo Acreide is a town in Val di Noto in Sicily, Italy, presenting extraordinary historical stratifications. The quality of its Baroque heritage, in particular, has led to its inclusion in the Unesco World Heritage List. The town belong to a territory with an extraordinary archaeological, historical, artistic, and landscape heritage.

A progressive depopulation is going on there, since the last two decades; it has 8000 inhabitants now, one fifth less than twenty years ago, of which one half in the last two

years. The demographic decline hits more the historical districts, placed in the more internal urban centre, leading to abandonment, degradation and marginalization.

Such depopulation acceleration stands against a growing tourism, not just seasonal or massive, but attracting a large number of the visitors who typically travel Syracuse and Noto. Somehow, a new population of tourists pairs the population decline. The study looks at the possible strategy for an urban revitalization, with the aim of avoiding the transformation of the historic centre into a widespread system of B& B, as the experience of Syracuse and Noto taught us.

 

the goal

The objective of the comparative research-investigation is to reveal new and in-depth points of view and design suggestions aimed at providing a new description of rural villages, with the aim of overturning the old marginal representations of these places, highlighting their potential instead.

In these places, architecture, which is closely interrelated with history, landscape, vernacular and contemporary sites, can become a tool for the revitalization of territories. Thanks to proper architectural strategic actions, the vitality of the village economy and culture can be upgraded, moreover by restoring the original social structure of the village and forming a new village community, the geopolitical cluster could be transformed into an economic, cultural, social and ecological one.

 

introductory note on bibliography

The recommended bibliography is organized in two sections. A general bibliography, which offers relevant texts on the topic of abandonment and small villages in the inner territories, and a specific bibliography on the proposed case studies.

In relation to the specificity of the sites, all the case studies’ bibliography is in Italian or in Chinese according to the location of the proposed villages.

 

general bibliography

      Albrecht B., Magrin A., (a cura di), Il Bel Paese. Progetto per 22.621 centri storici, Rubettino, Soveria Mannelli 2017.

      AMO, Koolhaas R. (a cura di), Countryside. A Report, Guggenheim Taschen, New York 2020.

      Auge M., Non-Places (An Introduction to Supermodernity), Verso, London and New York 2009 (second edition).

      Barca F., An Agenda for a reformed Cohesion Policy - A place-based approach to meeting European Union 1 challenges and expectations, 2009.

      Barca F., Casavola P., Lucatelli S., Strategia nazionale per le Aree Interne: definizione, obiettivi, strumenti e governance, Collana Materiali Uval, n. 31, Roma 2014.

      Borghi E., Piccole Italie. Le aree interne e la questione territoriale, Donzelli Editore, Roma 2017.

      Careri F., Walkscape. Camminare come pratica estetica, Einaudi, Torino 2006.

      Coccia L. (a cura di), Architettura e Turismo, FrancoAngeli. Nuova serie di Architettura, Milano 2012.

      Cucinella M., Arcipelago Italia. Progetti per il futuro dei territori interni del Paese, Catalogo della mostra Padiglione Italia alla Biennale di Architettura 2018, Quodlibet, Venezia 2018.

      Decandia L., Lutzoni L., (a cura di), La strada che parla. Dispositivi per ripensare il futuro delle aree interne in una nuova dimensione urbana, Franco Angeli, Milano 2016.

      De Rossi A. (a cura di), Riabitare l’Italia. Le aree interne tra abbandoni e riconquiste, Donzelli Editore, Roma 2017.

      De Rossi A., Mascino L., Territorio / Territory – Per un progetto metromontano / Promoting a metro-mountain project, in “Domus”, Recovering Italy, n. 1052, dicembre 2020.

      Esposito F., Russo M., Sargolini M., Sartori L., Virgili V. (a cura di), Building back better: idee e percorsi per la costruzione di comunitÓ resilienti, Carocci, Roma 2017.

      Flora N., Crucianelli E., I Borghi dell’uomo, LetteraVentidue, Siracusa 2013.

      Fujimoto S., Primitive Future, INAX Publishing, Tokyo 2008.

      Knapp R. G., Chinese Houses-The Architectural Heritage of a Nation, Tuttle Publishing, Singapore 2005.

      Lefaivre L., Tzonis A., Architecture of Regionalism in the Age of Globalization, Routledge, New York 2009.

      Lueling C., Energizing Architecture / Design and Photovoltaics, Technologiestiftung Berlin, Berlin 2009.

      Martinelli L., L’Italia Ŕ bella dentro. Storie di resilienza, innovazione e ritorno nelle aree interne, Altreconomie, Milano 2020.

      Meini M. (a cura di), Terre invisibili. Esplorazioni sul potenziale turistico delle aree interne, Rubbettino, Soveria Mannelli (CZ) 2018.

      Natterer Schweitzer Volz Winter H., Timber Construction Manual, Edition DETAIL.

      Petrucci E., Romagni L., Alterazioni. Osservazioni sul conflitto tra antico e nuovo, Quodlibet, Macerata 2016.

      Piccinato L., Urbanistica medioevale, Edizioni Dedalo, Bari 1993.

      Pierantoni I., Sargolini M., Protected areas and local communities: a challenge for inland development, LISt Publisher, Barcellona 2020.

      Teti V., Quel che resta. L’Italia dei paesi, tra abbandoni e riconquiste, Donzelli Editore, Roma 2017.

      Teti V., Il senso dei luoghi. Memoria e storia dei paesi abbandonati, Donzelli Editore, Roma 2004.

      Toppetti F. (a cura di), Progettare i piccoli centri, Quodlibet, Macerata 2018.

 

 

short bibliography on the case studies

 

Arquata del Tronto and Trisungo – Marche Appennines

      AA.VV. e Associazione ArkŔs (a cura di), Sguardi nel territorio: il futuro delle aree interne. La rinascita dei paesi e delle terre dell'Appennino, I Quaderni del consiglio, n. 229, Collana editoriale del Consiglio regionale delle Marche, Ancona 2017.

      Anselmi S., Volpe G., L’Architettura popolare in Italia. Marche, Laterza, Bari 1987.

      Cipolletti S., Coccia L., Persistente instabilitÓ. La ricostruzione del borgo di Arquata del Tronto, Quodlibet. Collana IN, Macerata 2021.

      Della Pasqua M., La zona rossa: le terre di Arquata del Tronto dopo il terremoto 2016, La Pieve Poligrafica, Villa Verucchio (RN) 2017.

      GaliŔ N., Gabriele Vecchioni, Arquata del Tronto: il comune dei due Parchi Nazionali, edizioni Ricerche collana, 2006.

      Lalli G., La Torre civica di Arquata del Tronto: nei documenti d'archivio, e dopo i sismi del 24 agosto e del 30 ottobre 2016 che ne hanno procurato il crollo, Collana Editoriale Racconta Arquata, Ascoli Piceno 2017.

      Lalli G., Ottocento arquatano, Collana Editoriale Racconta Arquata, Ascoli Piceno 2018.

      Lalli G., Settecento arquatano, Collana Editoriale Racconta Arquata, Ascoli Piceno 2019.

 

Bova and the Grecanica area of Calabria

      Amaro O., I centri storici minori. Esperienze di progetto in Calabria, in Lauria M. (a cura di), Che fine hanno fatto i Centri Storici minori?, Ed. Centro stampa di Ateneo, Reggio Calabria 2009.

      Dattola Morello R., Bova lineamenti artistici, in “Calabria sconosciuta: rivista trimestrale di cultura e turismo”, n. 13, Reggio Calabria 1978.

      Errante G., Studio sul grecanico della Bovesia, in “Calabria sconosciuta: rivista trimestrale di cultura e turismo”, n. 61, Reggio Calabria 1994.

      Gambi L., Calabria, Utet, Torino 1975.

      Tornatora M., Tettonica e stratigrafica, in Villari A. (a cura di), PAESAGGIO 150. Sguardi sul paesaggio italiano tra conservazione, trasformazione e progetto in 150 anni di storia, Aracne, Roma 2012.

      Tornatora M., Amaro O., LANDSCAPE IN_PROGRESS. Idee e progetti per la cittÓ metropolitana di Reggio Calabria, Gangemi, Roma 2015.

      Tornatora M., Amaro O., New maps for the desires of the world, in Trimarchi M., Neri G., Art and Economics in the City, Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld – Deu 2019.

      Tornatora M., La forma dell’assenza nei territori fragili. Il progetto delle Piazze d’acqua come infrastrutture ambientali, in Mistretta M., Mussari B., Santini A. (a cura di), La Mediterranea verso il 2030. Studi e ricerche sul patrimonio storico e sui paesaggi antropici, tra conservazione e rigenerazione - Parte I, ArcHistoR (Extra n. 6/2019), Reggio Calabria 2019.

 

Craco

      Comitato Nazionale Aree Interne (a cura di), Rapporto di Istruttoria per la Selezione delle Aree Interne. Regione Basilicata, 2014.

      Comitato Montagna Materana, Strategia nazionale per le Aree Interne/Progetto pilota, 2017.

      D'Agostino A., Cerreta M., Vannelli G., Zizzania P., A way of the Italian inner area Montagna Materana. Rethinking the abandonment from Craco, in “Landscape and risk, Sustainable Mediterranean Construction Magazine”, special issue n. 4, Luciano Editore, Napoli 2020.

      Sichenze A. (a cura di), Architetture clandestine/Secret Architecture. Viaggi nelle 131 cittÓ-natura della Basilicata, Edizioni Giannatelli, Matera 2017.

      Museo Emozionale di Craco: http://www.cracoemotion.org/.

      Basilicata Bella Scoperta: https://www.basilicataturistica.it/.

 

Ludiao Wan Village

      陈从周、潘洪萱、路秉杰, 中国民居, 学林出版社, 1997.

      张松, 当代中国历史保护读本, 中国建筑工业出版社, 2016.

      张庭伟、田莉, 城市读本中文版(The Chinese City Reader), 中国建筑工业出版社, 2013.

      黑川纪章, 新共生思想 (Philosophy of Symbiosis), 中国建筑工业出版社, 2009.

      徐洁、方志达, 再生城市与乡村——南方设计的思考与实践, 同济大学出版社, 2015.

      Douglas Saunders, Arrival City落脚城市-最后的人类大迁徙与我们的未来, 上海译文出版社, 2012.

 

Palazzolo Acreide

      Bernab˛ Brea L., Akrai, SocietÓ di Storia Patria per la Sicilia Orientale, Catania 1956.

      Trigilia L., Lombardo L., Terra Palatioli. Immagine e memoria, Lombardi Editori, Siracusa 1999.

      Messina B., Foti F., AKRAI URBAN LAB Il ruolo del progetto nella costruzione della cittÓ e del territorio. Tesi di laurea su Palazzolo Acreide, LetteraVentidue Edizioni, Siracusa 2012.

      Messina B., The Val di Noto in Sicily: the Palazzolo Acreide case, in Architecture Tourism and Marginal Areas, LetteraVentidue Edizioni, Siracusa 2020.